Thursday, December 13, 2012

Friedrich Delitzsch, 1850-1922

"Delitzsch was facing real problems. . . . But the controversial stand he took was rooted more in modern ideological conflicts than in a dispassionate study of the ancient religions. His use of ancient evidence was often exaggerated and distorted. . . . As history of religion, his assessment of the data was intemperate, and his outbursts had the effect of retarding rather than advancing the cool assessment of the problems that Assyriological discovery had created for the relationship between Bible and religion."

     Encyclopedia of religion, 2nd ed., ed. Lindsay Jones (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005), s.v. "Delitzsch, Friedrich" (1987), by James Barr.  Cf. also the much shorter entry in the rev. 3rd (2005) edition of the Oxford dictionary of the Christian church.  When the entry in The new Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of religious knowledge was written, Delitzsch was still alive.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

"Sargon II speaks of razing, destroying, and burning cities in his conquests."

For example "I razed, destroyed, and burned Raphia."

     Sargon II, Annals, ll. 53-57, as translated (?) by K. Lawson Younger, Jr., in The context of Scripture, edited by William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., vol. 2:  Monumental inscriptions from the biblical world (Leiden:  Brill, 2000), p. 293.

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Heavenly court

"In the A[ncient ]N[ear ]E[ast], a common metaphor for describing the world of the divine was the 'divine assembly' or 'divine council.'  These descriptions of gods and goddesses gathered together under the leadership of a senior deity were derived, in all probability, from the activities of the royal court.  The O[ld ]T[estament] provides a number of descriptions of this heavenly assembly that closely resemble descriptions in the literature of the surrounding cultures. . . ."

     E. Theodore Mullen, Jr., "Divine assembly," in The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon, 2007), vol. 2, p. 145 (pp. 145-146).

Friday, September 21, 2012

missionary, i.e. sent

mission (the noun):  from "classical Latin missiōn-, missiō sending, dismissal, sending of ambassadors, . . . in post-classical Latin also ‘sending of Christ into the world’ (4th cent.), ‘sending of the Holy Spirit into the world’ (4th or 5th cent. in Augustine)", which is from classical Latin "miss- , past participial stem of mittere to send".

     "mission, n." OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/119999 (accessed September 21, 2012).

apostolic, i.e. sent

apostle (the noun):  from the Latin apostolus; which derives from the Greek ἀπόστολος, a messenger, one sent forth;  which derives from the Greek ἀποστέλλειν, to send away.

     "apostle, n." OED Online. September 2012. Oxford University Press. http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/9427 (accessed September 21, 2012).

Monday, September 17, 2012

Zion Theology

". . . three elements emerge in any discussion of Zion:  the city, Yahwistic religion[,] and kingship.  The relationship between these constitutes . . . what is known as the 'Zion tradition' or . . . 'Zion theology'. . . .
     "It is common to identify [five] central tenets of this tradition. . . . From these elements, scholars arrive at two central conclusions that impinge upon a Zion theology in the prophets:  first, God has chosen Zion for his holy abode; second, Zion is protected by God by virtue of his presence there. . . ."

     H. A. Thomas, "Zion," in Dictionary of the Old Testament prophets, ed. Mark J. Boda and J. Gordon McConville (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 2012), 907 (907-914).

Cult

     "The 'cult' is understood to be any setting of worship, whether an official institutional site, such as a royally sponsored temple, . . . a temporary altar or shrine, . . . or a private household. . . . 'Liturgy' pertains to words and actions performed by cultic officials or laity in the course of worship. . . ."

     ". . . The writing prophets can easily be misunderstood as being antiritualistic, but consideration of their broader message indicates that they were deeply concerned that the cult function properly, and their visions often portray a promising future for temple worship. . . ."

     J. W. Hilber, "Liturgy and cult," in Dictionary of the Old Testament prophets, ed. Mark J. Boda and J. Gordon McConville (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 2012), 514, 513 (513-524).

Ariel

". . . Ariel means something like 'altar hearth' and may designate the altar of burnt offering as a symbolic reference to Jerusalem. . . . [Thus] Jerusalem . . . will become a place for sacrifice or slaughter (Isa 29:2).  Ariel . . . may also be related to the etymology of ʾari ʾel (lion of God) since Judah is called a lion's whelp in Gen 49:9.  Others detect an allusion to . . . har ʾel . . . that is, Jerusalem as the 'mountain of God.' . . ."

     Ralph W. Klein, "Ariel," New interpreter's dictionary of the Bible (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2006), vol. 1, p. 259.

Friday, August 31, 2012

Malachi, my messenger

"The oracle of the word of the Lord to Israel by Malachi [(מַלְאָכִֽי)]" (Mal. 1:1, RSV).

"'Behold, I send my messenger [(מַלְאָכִ֔י)] to prepare the way before me" (Mal. 3:1, RSV).

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Dies Irae

"(Lat., ‘Day of wrath’), the opening words, and hence the name, of the sequence in the Mass for the Dead in the W[estern] Church. It is now thought to go back to a rhymed prayer of late 12th-cent[ury] Benedictine origin. To this prayer, depicting the soul awaiting judgement, a Franciscan . . . has added a greater sense of urgency, reflecting the eschatological mood of the mid-13th cent[ury]. The first printed Missal containing it as the sequence for Requiem Masses is that of Venice, 1485. Until 1969 its use was obligatory. . . . It may now . . . be omitted. . . ."

     "Dies Irae" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone.© Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 30 August 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e2035.

     The sequence itself, as notated in The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, 2nd ed., ed. Stanley Sadie (New York:  Grove Dictionaries Inc., 2001), s.v. "Dies Irae" (vol. 7, p. 332-333), by John Caldwell and Malcolm Boyd:

Douai-Reims Bible

"The version of the Bible in use among English-speaking R[oman ]C[atholic]s for more than three centuries. It was the work of members of the English College at Douai. . . .  It claimed to provide a version free from the heretical renderings in the earlier English Bibles. The work was begun at Douai, but owing to the migration of the college to Reims in 1578, the NT was completed in that city and published there in 1582. The OT, which did not appear till 1609–10, was published at Douai, whither the college had returned in the meantime. The translation, which was made not from the original languages but from the Latin Vulgate, was painstaking and reached a high standard of consistency, but was often too literal to be suitable for use in public worship or private devotional reading. . . .  Its language exercised considerable influence on the text of the Authorized Version.  Modern editions of this translation are based on the revision made by R. Challoner in 1749. . . ."

     "Douai–Reims Bible" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone.© Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 30 August 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e2136.

Thursday, August 2, 2012

Tarshish

     "Because of the ambiguity regarding the identification of Tarshish, we are not able to say with confidence where Jonah was heading when he set sail from Joppa.  All we can be sure of is that he was going west, and that he thought he would be leaving his God behind."

     The Anchor Bible dictionary, ed. David Noel Freedman (6 vols., New York, NY:  Doubleday, 1992), s.v. "Tarshish," by David W. Baker (vol. 6, p. 333 (331-333)).  Cf. C. H. Gordon in the Interpreter's dictionary of the Bible (5 vols., Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 1962, 1976):  "A far-off, and sometimes idealized, port that cannot be identified with any one location" (vol. 4, p. 517).

Flannelgraph

A "Means of bringing Bible characters and scenes to life by placing felt or felt-backed figures on a felt background.  Some sets have as many as six hundred characters and objects.  Illustrating a Bible story with these finely detailed characters helps to hold the interest of children. . . ."

     Evangelical dictionary of Christian education, ed. Michael J. Anthony (Grand Rapids, MI:  Baker Academic, 2001), s.v. "Flannelgraph" (p. 297), by Barbara Wyman.

Sackcloth and ashes

"SACKCLOTH. . . . A rough material made from the hair of a goat or camel. . . . In ancient sources, the term frequently appears (often alongside ASHES) within the context of A[ncient ]N[ear ]E[astern] and biblical rites of MOURNING or as an expression of repentance. . . .
     "Sackcloth (along with ashes) traditionally represented an expression of mourning, . . . a sign of repentance, . . . or the judgment of God. . . ."

"ASHES. . . . Ashes are often mentioned in connection with DUST and SACKCLOTH as signs of MOURNING, GRIEF, and humiliation; . . . the application of ashes to the head and body at times of personal and national crisis, often accompanied by FASTING, indicated penitence. . . ."

     The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible, ed. Katherine Doob Sakenfeld et al. (5 vols., Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2006), s.v. "Sackcloth," by Brian B. Schmidt (vol. 5, p. 16), and "Ashes," by Judith R. Baskin (vol. 1, p. 299).

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Augustinian Friars

"Augustinian Hermits or Friars, now officially the ‘Order of Brothers of St Augustine’ or ‘Order of St Augustine’. A religious order living according to the Rule of St Augustine of Hippo. In 1244 Innocent IV directed the Tuscan hermits to accept this Rule; . . . in 1256 Pope Alexander IV united . . . three congregations (and certain others who seceded soon afterwards) to form the Friars Hermit. . . . The later Middle Ages saw the rise of certain local reformed congregations, such as that of Saxony (1419–1560), to which M. Luther belonged. . . ."

"Augustinian Hermits" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. © Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 17 July 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e565.

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

The "Damasine List" (so-called)

"Acc[ording] to E. von Dobschütz, [the Gelasian Decree/Decretal] is not a Papal work at all, but a private compilation [(e.g. 'gelehrte Privatarbeit' (Dobschütz, Das Decretum Gelasianum (1912), 250, speaking of the List in chap. 2 specifically, and not just the Decretal as a whole))] which was composed in Italy (but not at Rome) in the early 6th cent. Other scholars, while accepting this date, think it originated in Gaul."

"Decretum Gelasianum" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone.© Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 5 June 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e1942

Yet "many scholars (e.g. Thiel, Maassen, Turner, Zahn, Bardy, Di Capua) admit the possibility that [Pope] Damasus is responsible for the first part, which would have been composed at the Council of Rome in 382. . . ."

Patrology, volume IV:  The golden age of Latin Patristic literature from the Council of Nicea to the Council of Chalcedon, ed. Angelo Di Berardino, trans. Placid Solari (Westminister, MD:  Christian Classics, Inc., 1988), 277-278.

Sunday, June 3, 2012

Heresy

"The formal denial or doubt of any defined doctrine of the Catholic faith. In antiquity the Greek word αἵρεσις, denoting ‘choice’ or ‘thing chosen’, from which the term is derived, was applied to the tenets of particular philosophical schools. In this sense it appears occasionally in Scripture (e.g. Acts 5: 17) and the early Fathers. But it was employed also in a disparaging sense (e.g. 1 Cor. 11: 19) and from St Ignatius (Trall. 6, Eph. 6) onwards it came more and more to be used of theological error. . . ."

     "heresy" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. © Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 4 June 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e3211.

Ecumenical councils

"Oecumenical Councils (Gk. οἰκουμένη, ‘the whole inhabited world’). Assemblies of bishops and other ecclesiastical representatives of the whole world whose decisions on doctrine, cultus, discipline, etc., are considered binding on all Christians. Acc. to the teaching of most Christian communions outside the RC Church there have been no Oecumenical Councils since the schism between E. and W., the last being the second of Nicaea in 787. . . .
"Seven Councils are commonly held both in E. and W. to be oecumenical. These are, with their dates and the chief subjects dealt with: (1) Nicaea I (325, Arianism); (2) Constantinople I (381, Apollinarianism); (3) Ephesus (431, Nestorianism); (4) Chalcedon (451, Eutychianism); (5) Constantinople II (553, Three Chapters Controversy); (6) Constantinople III (680–1, Monothelitism); (7) Nicaea II (787, Iconoclasm). . . ."

     "Oecumenical Councils" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. © Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 4 June 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e4938.

Thursday, May 31, 2012

Macedonia

"The Roman province of Macedonia lay in the northern part of GREECE and extended beyond the historic kingdom of Macedonia, from the Adriatic eastward to Thrace.  To the north lay the provinces of Illyricum and Moesia.  Southward it took in the area of Thessaly (and the mountainous range around Olympus).  To the southwest of Macedonia was the region of Epirus, and to the south the province of Achaia. . . ."

     David W. J. Gill, "Macedonia," in The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible, ed. Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2006), vol. 3, p. 761-762.

Achaia, Achaea

"The province of Achaia, formed after the incorporation of Greece in the Roman Empire (146 BCE), covered the area of the Peloponnese and southern mainland Greece. . . ."

     David W. J. Gill, "Achaia," in The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible, ed. Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2006), vol. 1, pp. 30-31.

Saturday, May 19, 2012

Resurrection of the body

"Paul's teaching about the bodily resurrection arises out of a Jewish anthropology in which the 'soul' (Heb nepes; Gk psyche) is the animating principle of human life. . . . In mainstream Jewish thought human beings do not have souls, they are souls.  This anthropological underpinning has tremendous implications for a doctrine of the resurrection in that it refuses to surrender the somatic [(i.e. bodily)] component of a human being.  Resurrection involves the redemption of the physical body, although . . . the somatic nature of that resurrection gives scope for some of Paul's most creative thinking in 1 Corinthians 15:35-49. . . ."

     L. J. Kreitzer, "Resurrection," in Dictionary of Paul and his letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 1993), 810 (805-812).

"In Paul’s day, people believed heavenly bodies . . . were living things"

See, for example, Philo:

"Among lesser plants, that did not partake of its universal character, some were created with a capacity of moving from one place to another, others, meant to be stationary, lacked such a capacity for change of place.  Our name for those which have the power of locomotion is animals.  These took to . . . the several main divisions of our universe, land animals to earth, to water those that swim, the winged creatures to air, and to fire the fire-born. . . . The stars found their place in heaven.  Those who have made philosophy their study tell us that these too are living creatures [(ζῷα . . . νοερὰ)], but of a kind composed entirely of Mind.  Of these some, the planets, appear to change their position by a power inherent in themselves, others to do so as they are swept along in the rush of our universe, and these we call fixed stars."

     Philo, De plantatione (Concerning Noah's work as a planter) III.11-12, trans. F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker (Loeb classical library, Philo III (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1930), p. 218/219).

Enemies of God

"The terminology of 'enemy' (echthros), 'enmity' (echthra), 'hate' (miseō) and its various related images must be seen within the context of the dualism of Pauline thought.  Humanity is divided by Paul into 'those who are being saved' and 'those who are perishing' (1 Cor 1:18; 2 Cor 2:15); those of the kingdom of light and those of the domain of darkness (Col 1:12-13; cf. Gal 1:4); those who belong to Christ and those who belong to this world (Eph 2:1-10; 1 Cor 2:6-7).  The backdrop for this division is the supernatural conflict between the rule of Christ and 'the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms' (Eph 6:12; see Principalities and Powers).  It is to the latter categories that the term enemy properly applies. . . ."

     L. L. Belleville, "Enemy, enmity, hatred," in the Dictionary of Paul and his letters, ed. Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, & Daniel G. Reid (Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 1993), 235 (235-238).

Creeds

"Formal fixed Christian creeds began to appear only in the 3rd and 4th century, but they have their roots in biblical statements of faith. . . .
     "In the NT there is the simple creedal acclamation:  'Jesus is Lord' (1 Cor 12:3, Phil 2:11). . . . In 1 Cor 15:3-7 is a statement with four elements:  Christ died, was buried, was raised, and appeared to believers. . . ."
     "Such formulations, with their poetic rhythms, were used in liturgical contexts. . . ."

     Barbara E. Reid, "Creed," in The new interpreter's dictionary of the Bible, ed. Katharine Doob Sakenfeld (Nashville, TN:  Abingdon Press, 2006), vol. 1, p. 789.

Monday, May 7, 2012

Merit

"'merit' designates man's right to be rewarded for a work done for God. The conception has its foundation in the Bible, where in both the OT and the NT rewards are promised to the just for their good works. . . . The term appears to have been first employed by Tertullian, who already recognizes diversity of merit followed by diversity of reward. . . . This doctrine was endorsed by Cyprian, Augustine (partly), and the later Fathers, until the theology of merit was fully developed by the Schoolmen. . . .
"The traditional doctrine of merit was repudiated by the Reformers, esp. by M. Luther, who taught the sinfulness of all human works whether done before or after justification. Most subsequent Protestant theology has denied that merit is a valid Christian category. . . ."

"merit" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone. © Oxford University Press 2005. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 8 May 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-christianchurch.com/entry?entry=t257.e4493

Saturday, May 5, 2012

"Joseph Fletcher’s famous ethical question"

"Situation ethics is more Biblical and verb-thinking than Greek and noun-thinking.  It does not ask what is good but how to do good for whom; not what is love but how to do the most loving thing possible in the situation."

     Joseph Fletcher, Situation ethics:  the new morality (Philadelphia:  The Westminster Press, 1966), 52.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

"the original author's meaning"

On which see, among much else of value, Stephen E. Fowl, "The role of authorial intention in the theological interpretation of Scripture," in Between two horizons:  spanning New Testament studies and systematic theology, ed. Joel B. Green and Max Turner (Grand Rapids, MI:  William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000), 71-87 (chap. 4).

Diatribe

"Diatribe, based on the Greek noun διατριβή, . . . is a modern literary term describing an informal rhetorical mode of argumentation principally characterized by a lively dialogical style including the use of imaginary discussion partners (often abruptly addressed), to whom are attributed hypothetical objections and false conclusions."

     David E. Aune, The Westminster dictionary of New Testament and early Christian literature and rhetoric (Louisville, KY:  Westminster John Knox Press, 2003), s.v. Diatribe, p.127 (pp. 127-129).

Thursday, April 19, 2012

The destruction of the leaven

"BIʿUR ḤAMETS (; destruction of leaven), the act of destroying . . . any leaven . . . in one’s possession on the morning of 14 Nisan . . . in accordance with the rabbinic interpretation of Exodus 12.15. . . . To make sure that “no leaven shall be seen with you” (Dt. 16.4), . . . leaven should, on the eve of [Pesaḥ], be either burned (biʿur) or disowned (bittul). . . . See also Bediqat Ḥamets."

"BIʿUR ḤAMETS" The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Ed. Adele Berlin and Maxine Grossman.Copyright © 2011 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 19 April 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-jewishreligion.com/entry?entry=t322.e0564.


Sunday, April 1, 2012

Fence around the law

"SEYAG LA-TORAH (;. fence around the law), preventive rabbinic injunction whose purpose is to safeguard the observance of biblical commandments. The sanction for such safeguards is found in Avot 1.1. . . . The “fence” consisted of an added level of stringency. . . ."

     "SEYAG LA-TORAH" The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Ed. Adele Berlin and Maxine Grossman.Copyright © 2011 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Seattle Pacific University. 2 April 2012 http://ezproxy.spu.edu/login?url=http://www.oxford-jewishreligion.com/entry?entry=t322.e2825.

"the Spirit of God dwells in you" (plural)

τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν (plural), not σοὶ (singular).

Friday, March 16, 2012

lectio divina

Workshop of Robert Campin,
Annunciation Triptych (Merode Altarpeice), c. 1427-32.
Metropolitan Museum of ArtWikimedia Commons.
"Found most commonly but not exclusively in writings on monastic spirituality, . . . the phrase lectio divina . . . refers to a 'holy reading' of the Scriptures. . . . Lectio aims to draw out the spiritual meaning of the Scriptures in order for the [reader] to grow in God's wisdom revealed through the Word. Thus, the kind of scriptural interpretation on which lectio is based is neither scientific nor historical-critical, nor is its reflection on the Word aimed at theological insight (in the modern sense of academic theology). Rather, it aims at disclosing the God who speaks through the Word and at shaping an appropriate response in thought, prayer, and the conduct of one's life. It is theological in the sense that it praises and acknowledges the God who reveals, and [that] it responds to God by deepening conversion of mind and heart in life. It is dialogical in the sense that it restores the sacred Scriptures to their original status as proclamations to be heard and responded to. It reveres the Scriptures as divine address requiring a humble and forthright response. [One] does not engage in lectio divina for the sake of being intellectually informed or enlightened; rather, [one] engages in lectio truly to 'listen' and respond to God's invitation to lead a fuller and richer life illumined by God's revealed Word and through God's gracious invitation and action.
     ". . . The way in which monastics practiced this holy reading . . . was to speak the words aloud and to meditate on their meaning (meditatio) by repeating them and truly savoring their meaning. The term rumination describes this holy exercise. One literally 'chewed over' the sacred text to savor and digest it. . . .
     ". . . Mary . . . stands as a model [such] listener and believer. Depictions of Mary praying over the Scriptures as Gabriel visited her to make his announcement envision how believers . . . should ponder God's Word, welcome it, and obey it. . . ."
    
     Kevin W. Irwin, "Lectio Divina," Encyclopedia of Monasticism (edited by William H. Johnston; Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000) 1:750-752.

Saturday, March 3, 2012

kairos

Greek:  καιρός, "right or proper time."

"Fullness of time; the propitious moment for the performance of an action or the coming into being of a new state."

     Oxford English dictionary, 2nd ed. (1989), as reproduced in the online version dated December 2011, and accessed on 3 March 2012.  First published in A Supplement to the OED II, 1976.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

"Keep awake"

Mk 13:33 NRSV:  "keep alert [(ἀγρυπνεῖτε, form of ἀγρυπνέω)]"
Mk 13:34 NRSV:  "be on the watch [(γρηγορῇ, form of γρηγορέω)]"
Mk 13:35 NRSV:  "keep awake [(γρηγορεῖτε, form of γρηγορέω)]"
Mk 13:37 NRSV:  "Keep awake [(γρηγορεῖτε, form of γρηγορέω)]"
Mk 14:34 NRSV:  "keep awake [(γρηγορεῖτε, form of γρηγορέω)]"
Mk 14:37 NRSV:  "keep awake [(γρηγορῆσαι, form of γρηγορέω)]"
Mk 14:38 NRSV:  "Keep awake [(γρηγορεῖτε, form of γρηγορέω)]"

Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Wednesday, February 8, 2012

"Peter. . . . 'rebukes' Jesus, as though he were trying to exorcise a demon"

Mk 8:32:  "Peter . . . began to rebuke [(form of ἐπιτιμάω)] him.  But . . . [Jesus] rebuked [(form of ἐπιτιμάω)] Peter, and said, 'Get behind me, Satan!"

Mk 1:25:  "But Jesus rebuked [(form of ἐπιτιμάω) the unclean spirit]. . . ."
Mk 9:25:  "he rebuked [(form of ἐπιτιμάω)] the unclean spirit. . . ."

Monday, January 30, 2012

Syrophoenician

"The term 'Syrophoenician' [(Συροφοινίκισσα, Syrophoinikissa)] indicates that this woman was from Phoenicia, located in the Roman province of Syria, or, more specifically, from the area of the old cities of Tyre and Sidon."

     The HarperCollins Bible dictionary, rev. ed. (San Francisco:  HarperSanFrancisco, HarperCollins, 1996), s.v. Syrophoenician, by Philip L. Shuler.

Sunday, January 29, 2012

Mk 6:50 and Ex 3:14 compared

Mk 6:50ἐγώ εἰμι, "[It] is I", or, more literally, "I am"
Ex 3:14 LXX᾿Εγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν, "I am who I am". . . . ῾Ο ὢν, "I am"
Ex 3:14:  אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר אֶֽהְיֶ֑ה, "I am who I am". . . . אֶֽהְיֶ֖ה, "I am"

Ex 3:14 LXX (NETS):  "And God said to Moyses, 'I am The One Who Is.'  And he said, 'Thus shall you say to the sons of Israel, "The One Who Is has sent me to you".'"

Friday, January 13, 2012

Intercalation

"a literary technique in which a narrative segment is interrupted by the embedding of a second narrative segment (a Zwischenepisode) within the first, after which the threads of the first are picked up again, producing an ABA' pattern of composition. . . .
     "Intercalations occur at least six times in Mark. . . ."

     David E. Aune, The Westminster dictionary of New Testament and early Christian literature and rhetoric (Louisville, KY:  Westminster John Knox Press, 2003), 230 (230-232), where there is, of course, much more, and a bibliography to boot.  REF BS2312 .A86 2003.

Thursday, January 12, 2012

economy

"state of being arranged, arrangement, order, plan"; "of God's unique plan private plan, plan of salvation, i.e. arrangements for redemption of humans".

     A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature, 3rd edition, ed. Frederick William Danker (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000), 697 (οἰκονομία 2 and 2b).